1 Introduction to the Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia. This chapter provides a short introduction to the topic of the book. I define. 7 Host Range of Daphnia Parasites. In this chapter, I summarize what we know about parasite host ranges and host specificity. I outline the ecological. 5 The Effects of Daphnia Parasites on Host Fitness. Parasites use their hosts to foster their own needs, thus interfering with the hosts’ survival and reproduction.
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This conceptual definition of a parasite includes members of various taxa, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, but also includes functional categories not taxonomically definedsuch as pathogens Pathogen: A Glossary provides definitions of terms from Daphnia biology and parasitology used throughout the book.
Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia
Parasites may lower the epidemilogy of their hosts to escape predators Predator: Conceptually, parasite and pathogen are the same. Z Parasitkunde6: If parasites are locally adapted and thus cause more harm to their local hosts, a host that migrates into such a population should, one expects, suffer less on average from the local parasites than the local hosts.
Degree to which members of a population differ at certain loci.
There is little doubt that parasites Parasite: Every parasite has a host, but no parasite Parasite: Potential for coevolution and frequency-dependent selection. Includes aspects of reduced fecundity, lethargy, and other evolutioj of disease. Predatory fish, phantom midge larvae, and water boatmen were among the key culprits and received a lot of attention, evolutikn particular after predator-induced defenses Predator-induced defense: The next chapters describe the interactions between parasites and their Daphnia hosts.
Until now, this has been the key reference in this field, not only for the taxonomy of parasites and epibionts Epibiont: Given these theoretical considerations and the finding that Daphnia parasites seem to be locally adapted, one may speculate that parasites of Daphnia usually have a higher evolutionary potential than their hosts.
J Anim Ecol Selection leads to adaptation. Horizontal transmission is transmission by direct contact between infected and susceptible individuals or between disease vectors and susceptible individuals.
Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia – NCBI Bookshelf
Excerpt Following this introduction, Chapter 2 gives a general summary of Daphnia biology, highlighting at the same time those aspects that may be relevant for the study of parasitism.
This variation often follows a certain pattern, which is frequently discussed in eipdemiology context of local adaptation Local adaptation: Although there was no significant difference in the survival of infected hosts, there was a strong effect on fecundity such that C. Within populations, different clones of D. Evolution in health and disease, pp.
See also cyclic parthenogenesis. Migration among subpopulations is important for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a metapopulation.
Sometimes regarded as ecto-parasites. On the other hand, hosts are the environment for the parasites and thus define their niche. The dependence of host fitness Fitness: Kairomones ecooogy several different predators have been reported to lead to adaptive morphological and life history changes in Daphnia.
When fecundity or individual survival in a population are negatively dependent on density e. Selection leads to adaptation. Higher rates of mutation, recombination, and dispersal may facilitate local adaptation.
Local adaptation is best demonstrated by showing that immigrant genotypes are inferior to resident genotypes. Experiments are suggested at the individual level as well as at the population level. For example, Pasteuria ramosa shows very strong host clone—parasite isolate interaction.
Host specificity is very important for both ecological and evolutionary aspects of host—parasite interactions. In these studies, specificity was judged on replication across numerous rock pool populations.
Parasites may also influence other host fitness components, such as predator escape, body size, and sex allocation.
Occasional reports of “nonsignificant” effects of parasites have to be considered in the light of low statistical power or large environmental noise.