¼” screws at four jamb corners – screws bending corners screws bending. – tearing in frame wall at connections pushing limits of ASTM F □ Minimal. Mullion/Frame Design – Allowable Stress Design. ▫ Design Load = Equivalent 3 second design load ASTM F ▫ Info Required –. ▫ 1) Level of Protection. 1 Aug ASTM a, F , “Standard practice for specifying an equivalent 3- second duration design loading for blast resistant glazing fabricated.

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These include particular design of the glass or window frame components; increased anchorage of the window assembly itself; structural augmentation of the surrounding wall structure; or separate shielding systems and mechanisms designed to catch the debris.

The standard explain different methods to check the thickness and type of blast resistant glazing fabricated with laminated glass to glaze a fenestration. Views Read Edit View history. Structural design for blast resistance focuses on minimizing potential for progressive collapse through structural redundancy.

The standard explain different methods to check the thickness and type of blast resistant glazing fabricated with laminated glass to glaze a fenestration The main keywords to present this standard are air blast pressure, blast resistant glazing, explosion, insulating glass, and laminated glass.

When designing to minimize damages from an explosion, it is important to balance the security concerns with other design constraints, such as efficiency, feasibility and cost. With each assumed case, both the size of the weapon and location of the threat are crucially important.

ASTM F – Wikipedia

You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Terrorist activity is highly unpredictable and exists from a wide range of sources, leading to the increasing demand for reducing hazards in the event of an explosive blast. In the first stage of an explosive blast, ff shock wave expansion impacts the exterior envelope and structural components, creating an upward force on the floor levels as it passes through the structure.


One of the most common technologies currently being used is laminated glass. Blast testing has shown that use of fully tempered glass plies, when fractured during a blast event, have poorer post blast performance than annealled or heat strengthened glass plies.

Differing building shapes can either dissipate or accentuate an explosive blast. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. Yet there are obvious limitations in cases of cities and densely populated areas. Retrieved from ” https: The performance of building envelopes and cladding components during an explosive blast is more geared towards mitigating the hazards caused by the blast, as it has been found that many of the injuries and fatalities have been a direct result of flying glass and wall debris.

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By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ASTM International which was funded inis an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

Design considerations for both new and existing buildings should include adequate setback and standoff distance. Engineers at the University of Missouri are developing a layer of atsm fiber embedded in plastic that provides a reduced overall glass thickness, added strength to resist blasts, and transparency that many of the laminates do not have.

Use of the annealed ast, heat strengthened glass plies will also reduce the amount of load transferred into the structure. Great progress in design practice and product development has been made in the past decade, and will continue to be made going forward. Prior to this, there were essentially no government-wide blast resistance standards for security for civilian federal facilities.

ASTM F 2248

T following the Oklahoma City bombing of the Alfred P. Glass plies used to asstm laminated glass are recommended to be either annealed or heat strengthened glass. As a supplement to the GSA Security Criteria, ISC issued their own security criteria inestablishing additional requirements for glazing protection, standoff distances, vehicular access control, and security of air intake systems.


It is the intent of blast mitigation to control the fracture of glazing in such a way that it does not create these hazards. Blast mitigation technologies were credited for saving many lives during the September 11 attack on the Pentagon.

Various damage levels should be considered, ranging from minor or non-structural to major, which may include progressive collapse. Common testing methods outlined in these standards include shock tube, where impulse pressures are used to simulate an explosive blast, and open arena, where the test specimen is subjected to an actual explosive blast. A combination of these design approaches also may be used to achieve the desired response.

The main keywords to present this standard are air blast pressure, blast resistant glazing, explosion, insulating glass, and laminated glass. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. Polyvinyl butaryl layers are typically applied to the glazing layers with structural silicone sealant and in a range of interlayer configurations and thicknesses.

A range of manufacturers produce various lamination products based on desired response and performance characteristics. Various approaches may be used when designing fenestrations for blast-resistance. Assistant Editor Onjeinika Brooks obrooks same. The system shall be designed to ensure that the glazing fails prior to the framing system that supports the glazing and its attachment to the structural framing system. Consideration for the type of c with respect to breaking strength and behavior is also important.

As a result of increased terrorist activity in the past few decades, there has been growing demand for explosive blast resistance to be incorporated into the design of building structures and envelope components.