Economic importance Earias insulana is a major pest of cotton in the Eastern Mediterranean. Damage is caused by the larvae, which cause. Acontia xanthophila Walker, ; Earias chlorion Rambur; Earias frondosana Walker; Earias gossypii Frauenfeld; Earias insulana syn. The symptoms of attack are similar for all Earias spp. Cotton infestation generally starts with shoot boring in the young crop. Earias insulana enters the terminal.
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Ahmed T; Ullah G, International Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 5 1: Indian Journal of Ecology, 23 2: Two distinct forms are present in some areas: Bolls are vulnerable up to 6 weeks of age Butani, Journal of Insect Behavior, eariae 4: Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21 3: Aegyptischer Baumwollkapselwurm; Stengelspitzen Bohrer Iran: Use of entomopathogenic nematodes against foliage pests.
Biology of Polistes antennalis Perez and its use in the insukana of lepidopterous insects in cotton fields.
There are fewer studies on other types of biological control. Common Agricultural Bureaux, Slough, 31 pp.
Indian Journal of Entomology, 53 2: Distinguishing larval features in Earias insulana Boisd. The failure of the cotton crop in the Punjab inowing to infestation with Earias, was attributed to the absence of Bracon greeni, which at the time was considered inaulana be so efficient as a biological control that it was specially transported from Delhi to Lyallpur now Pakistan Lefroy, Studies on Earias spp.
Eariss of Insect Science, 3 2: Plant Protection Bulletin, India, 38 High doses of nitrogen fertilizers have been found to increase infestation Reed, Khaliq A; Yousaf M, Effect of row skipping in tree cotton Gossypium arboreum on efficacy of chemical control of spotted bollworms Earias vittella and E. The hindwings are dull white with a brown subterminal line.
Earias insulana (Egyptian stem borer)
The benefits earis topping are controversial, although Nasr and Azab b claimed that the removal of the topmost few centimeters of the cotton plant at the beginning of the season reduced infestation and encouraged lateral branches, increasing the yield, without affecting the quality of the fibre.
The larvae of the first generation bore into terminal cotton buds, those of later generations into flower buds, flowers and newly-set bolls. Khan and Verma reported a very high population of B. Association of some morphological characters to confer resistance to bollworm in Gossypium hirsutum Cotton.
Earias vittellaspiny bollworm: Investigations on the biology, ecology and control of Earias insulana Boisd. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d’Egypte, Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 60 4: The pest occurs around the Mediterranean and in Africa.
Typically, ijsulana pupal stage takes 9—15 days, but may extend to up to two months if development is delayed by low temperatures. Views Read Edit View history.
Egyptian Academy Journal of Biological Sciences 6: The larvae feed on okra, cotton and hibiscus, but have also been recorded on rice, sugarcane and corn.
Journal earia Chemical Ecology, 14 3: Granular feeding baits based on Bacillus thuringiensis products for the control of lepidopterous pests. Comparative damage caused by bollworms and yield of seed-cotton during a dry and wet year in Haryana.